What is Linux Operating System Explain in Detail | History | Types | Merits & Demerits?

Introduction

If we talked about the operating system of devices, So there are many types of Operating systems like Windows Operating System, Macc Operating System, Mobile Operating System(Android, IOS, Symbian OS, BlackBerry OS, Bada OS, ) and Linux Operating System, etc.

So, In our today’s blog, we’ll see that “What is Linux Operating system, their types, history, features, and its advantages and disadvantages. So let’s get started…

What is “Linux Operating System”?

Linux is a UNIX-based “Linux kernel” that is also known for Operating systems. It is an Open-source software just like a Windows OS and a Macc OS. The main difference between Linux and the Windows/ Macc OS is that Linux is freely available, we can use this OS for free which means that any programmer can make changes to this OS by doing some codes and makes new distros to make this OS useful for the commercial as well as for Personal purpose. on the other hand, the Window and the Macc is a paid OS that means we have to purchase this OS for use.

In an earlier period, this OS was made for personal purposes But After that This can be used for both Commercial and Non-Commercial purposes. From 90s Linux can be used for every device which we are using in our daily life Examples: Linux is used in PC, Laptops, Mobile Phones, Watches, Home appliances (TV, Camera, Refrigerator, cars, router…), and it is mostly used in a highly computerized system ( SuperComputer, Mainframe, embedded…), etc. . This OS was developed on September 17, 1991 by “Linus Torvalds”.

Components of Linux

There are mainly three types of components:

  1. Kernel
  2. System Library
  3. System Utility 

1) Kernal

It is the lowest level of system software that directly communicates with the system hardware. Kernal is the main core of the Linux Operating system that means it is responsible for executing all the programs of major activities to this operating system. The kernel is one of the first programs loaded on the startup. It can handle the Memory, Peripherals, and I/O Devices of a system by communicating with the software, After that, it can translate and Process the instructions for the CPU.

2) System Library

System libraries are special programs that are generally used in all Operating systems, It helps Linux to access the kernel features. System libraries are responsible for most of the functionalities of the Operating system. To accessing these libraries so you don’t need any permission from the kernel module.

3) System Utility

It is the program that executes individual, particular, and specialized functions which can be utilized from the system utilities.

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Features of Operating system

1) It is an Open Source software: Linux is a freely available OS to everyone which means it is a community-based development. Anyone can work on Linux to make a new Linux distro which makes it helpful to the public.

2) Secure: Linux provides us the security of password protection/2 factor authentication. which makes our data safe n secure.

3) GUI: It has a graphical user interface that makes it easy to use and provides a better user experience.

4) Multi-Tasking: In Linux, also has a multitasking feature that means we can use more than one application in the same period of time.

5) Portable: In Linux, portability means it can work on different types of hardware.

6) Live CD/USB: Live Cd/USB means the Linux OS can run without installing any Linux on a system. we can use it with the help of a CD/USB. For use with CD/USB firstly we have to make these devices bootable and then put an ISO file of that Linux which you want to run in a CD/USB.

7) Hierarchical File System: Linux provides a file system in which all the files and directories are arranged.

History of Linux

As I mentioned that the Linux is a UNIX-based Operating System. So, now what is UNIX?

UNIX is also known as “UNICS” which stands for “UNiplexed Information Computing System“. UNIX is a Multi-User that is mostly used in Mainframe Computers, Workstations, and for Servers. This Operating System was developed by two computer scientists whose names were “Dennis Ritchie” and “ken Thompson” in 1969. This is the most powerful and most popular multitasking operating system. In the 1960s, Unix OS was used by the command line, but after that, it was upgraded to a GUI (Graphical User Interface) so that it becomes easier to use. This operating system is made for commercial purposes, not for non-commercial purposes. It is only used by large Organizations.

Now Let’s talked about Linux,

In 1990, a Swedish-speaking Finnish student named “Linus Torvalds” starts a project to create a new operating system which is for free. The project was based on “Kernal” with GNU Tools. When his project was completed then he named it “Linux”. The word Linux is a combination of two words first his own name “Linus” and second is “UNIX” (Linus + Unix = Linux).

Linus Torvalds started this project is just for fun and ended up with the large Project. Now, In all over the world, Linux is everywhere e.g. In Mobile Phones, desktops, Laptops, Modems, routers, cars, fridges,s, and many others…

Evolution of Linux

  • In 1991, Linus released the first freely distributable version of Linux (Linus 0.01). He provides it for free on the internet under his license.
  • In 1992, Linus released the next version of Linux (Linux 0.12) under GNU General Public License
  • In 1993, Net BSD 0.8 and Free BSD 1.0 were released.
  • In 1994, Red Hat Linux was introduced.
  • In 1996, Linux 2.0 was released.
  • In 1998, Sun Solaris OS was released.
  • In 2000, Red hat release his first version of red hat enterprises.
  • In 2004, on October 20 the first version of Linux was released.
  • In 2011, A new update for Linux Kernal version 3.0 was released.
  • In 2014, The fourth version is released 4.0 of Linux Kernal.
  • In 2019, The fifth version is released of Linux Kernal.

Today we have over 600 Linux distros that are freely available for use. But, today I am going to tell you about the top Linux distributions where the people loved a lot to use this Linux:

  • Ubuntu
  • Linux Mint
  • Gentoo
  • Zorin OS
  • Elementary OS
  • Pop OS
  • Cent OS
  • Fedora
  • Arch Linux
  • Kali Linux
  • Open SUSE
  • Manjaro Linux
  • Slax Linux

And, much more…

Merits and Demerits of Linux (Advantages & Disadvantages Of Linux)

Advantages/Merits of Linux

1) Open Source: Linux is an open-source Operating System that is easily available for everyone for use.

2) Freely Available: Linux Operating is free to use. It is easily available for free So that anybody can use Linux by downloading it without purchasing any license key.

3) Smooth and Fast: It is a fast and super smooth OS That provides us a better experience of using Linux. Even in low-end PC Linux OS runs like a bullet train.

4) Flexibility: Linux is flexible, it is used on desktops, Laptops, Embedded systems, Workstations, and also used in Servers. we can install only required components for a system, So there is no need to Install a full suite.

5) Secure: Linux is more secure than the other OS. It provides us some restrictions that make our system secure. It provides us a password authorization and for admin which makes this OS secure. As such this OS is not fully secure, But there is no vulnerability than the Other OS.

6) Customization: Linux also provides us a customization option where we can customize it in any design which we liked to see.

7) Multi-Tasking: Linux Operating system allows us to use more than one application in the same period of time.

8) Privacy: As I mentioned that it provides us a secure system where we can use it without any issue, If we talked about Personal information so there is no need to worry because Linux doesn’t collect our personal information

Disadvantages/Demerits of Linux

1) No Standard Edition: In Windows and Macc OS there is a single standard edition. But, In Linux, there is no standard edition. This is the main disadvantage of Linux.

2) Hardware drivers: This is one of the biggest disadvantages that there is no hardware drivers for Linux. As compared to windows and macc operating system there is a lot of users. But in Linux, there is less user as compared to windows and macc. Market goes where there are more users, means that the Hardware companies make more hardware drivers for these two OS because these OS have more User as compared to Linux

3) Lack of Games: In Linux, there are fewer amount of games as compared to windows.

4) Non-Compatible Application: If you are a Linux user, you definitely faced this issue that you cannot run your favorite applications like Photoshop, Illustrator, Premier pro, etc. But in windows and macc you can easily do

5) Linux is Difficult to understand: As you are a new Linux user so you must need to learn about command lines in a terminal so that you can use it properly. It also makes a difficult for new users to understand it.

In Linux Operating System there are some command lines and their utilities. Let’s see…

Linux Command and their Utilities

CommandUtilities
1. pwd (Print Working directory)Showing the current directory of a file system
2. ls (List)list files in a directory and their attributes
3. cd/chdir (Change directory)change into the new directory
4. cat (Concatenate)creating, displaying and combining a text file
5. mkdir (Make directory)make new directory
6. rmdir (Remove directory)remove any empty directory
7. cp (Copy)Copying files from one directory to another.
8. mv (Move)Moving files to another location.
9. rm (Remove)Removing the files.
10. ln (link) Creating a hard link or a symbolic link
10. headShowing first few lines of a files.
11. tailShowing last few lines of a files.
12. moreShowing the text file on terminal with paging control.
13. touchCreate, change and modify timestamps of a file
14. findFinding the files that match in a specified criteria.
15. df (Disk free)Display the information of total space from the file system.
16. du (Disk Usage)Displaying the usage of storage.
17. echoDisplaying a line of string/text that is passed as the arguments.
18. grep (Global regular expression print)Display lines that match a pattern
19. chmod (Change mode)Set file permissions.
20. lpr (Line print)Printing the files.
21. pr (Print) Prepare a file for printing 
22. vi (Visual)Edit the files.
23. renameChanging the name of the directory or a files.
24. LocateFinding the files by their name.
25. diff (Difference) Comparing the contents of two files.
26. tar (Tape archive) Creating and extracting the archive files
27. cmp (Compare)Comparing the differences b/w two files.
28. od (Octal dump) convert input into Octal format.
30. fileDetermining the type of a file.
31. killTerminating the processes manually.
32. man (Manual)Showing help for a specific command.
33. weCount characters, words, and lines in a file
34. clearClean the terminal window.
35. exitClose the terminal.

This is not enough, there are many other commands are there in Linux OS.

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