Table of Contents

# History Of Computer

In the history of computers, **ABACUS** was one of the first computing tools which were discovered in ancient times. In 3000 BC, it was the first calculating device that helps us to calculate arithmetic calculations.

After that, In 1617 A.D. **โJohn Napierโ **was built a mechanical device with the name of **Napier bones **which help us with the calculation of products and quotients of numbers. This has the major upgrade from the abacus.

Around 1620 The **Slide Rule **was invented by **โE Gunterโ**(An English mathematician), The device Slide performs many operations like addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division, this is the third improvement from the first computing device (abacus).

After that, the **Pascal calculator **came in the 17th century which is also known as the โarithmetic machineโ or โPascalineโ. It is a mechanical calculator invented by **โBlaise Pascalโ**, this machine was operated by dialing a series of wheels, gears, and cylinders.

Like these, there were many inventions discovered in the ancient period. Now, let me tell you all of them one by one

## 1.ABACUS

Nearly 5000 years ago, the โabacusโ was developed in China in 3000 B.C. and this device is also known as the counting frame or board which means to calculate.

The word** โabacusโ** may be considered the first computer and it has been used by primitive peoples. This Chinese abacus has a frame holding vertical wires with seven beads on each wire. The horizontal divider separates the top two beads from the bottom five, some referred to as the heaven and the earth beads.

It was used in the ancient Near East, Europe, China, and Russia, etc. Now, the abacus is used today to teach small children how to count and it still remains in common use in some countries like Russia, China, Africa, and Japan.

## 2.NAPIERโS BONES

**Napierโs bones** were invented by **โJohn Napierโ**. He was a mathematician who became famous for his invention of logarithms. He built a mechanical device named **โNapierโs bonesโ **for the purpose of multiplication in 1617 A.D.

The name **โbonesโ** are a set of eleven rods side-by-side products and quotients of large numbers that can be obtained. The sticks were used in this device are called โbonesโ and this was made of bone of ivory. This device is also known as the first machine which uses the decimal point.

## 3.SLIDE RULE

English mathematician **โE. Gunterโ** developed the **Slide Rule **around (1581โ1626). This machine was capable of adding and subtracting the numbers.

This device consists of two movable rulers which were placed side-by-side rule. Each ruler is marked off in such a way that the actual distance from the beginning of the ruler is proportional to the logarithms which the numbers printed on the ruler.

## 4.PASCALโS CALCULATOR

**Pascal calculator** is also known as an **โarithmetic machineโ** or **โpascalineโ**. It is a mechanical device which is invented by **โBlaise Pascalโ** around (1962-1964). He was a french mathematician and he made this machine at the **age of 19**. This device is capable of adding and subtracting numbers. The machine was operated by dialing a series of wheels, gears, and cylinders.

Pascal also built around twenty more machines during the next decade, many of which improved on his original design.

## 5.LEIBNIZโS MULTIPLICATION AND DIVIDING MACHINE

Like Pascal, **Gottfried Leibniz**(a german mathematician) was a seventeen-century scientist who recognized the value of building machines and it is built around 1673. It is a mechanical device that could do mathematical calculations and save labor too. He improved the pascal invention by making this machine. It was a digital mechanical calculator which was called the **stepped reckoner**.

## 6.DIFFERENCE ENGINE

In the 1820s This engine was developed by **Charles** **Babbage** and he was an English machine and he is also known as the **โfather of computersโ**. This engine is an automatic mechanical calculator which is designed to tabulate polynomial functions. This was the first step towards the creation of computers, he realized that all mathematical calculations can be broken up into simple operations which are then constantly repeated and that, these operations could be carried out by an automatic machine.

After 10 years, he abandoned it for the **โanalytical engineโ**.

## 7.ANALYTICAL ENGINE

The Analytical engine marks the progression from the arithmetic calculation to general-purpose computation. This device is the successor of **โDifference Engineโ **and It was also developed by

โCharles Babbageโ in 1830.

This machine was based on the principle that for certain formulas & the certain values are constant. The engine had a โstoreโ(memory) where numbers and intermediate results could be held, and a separate โMillโ(processor) Where the arithmetic progression is performed. It was also capable of functions like conditional branching looping(iteration), latching, polling and microprogramming, etc.

## 8.TABULATING MACHINE

This is the electromechanical machine that was invented by **โHerman Hollerithโ** around the 1880s. This tabulating machine designed to summarizing information stored in punched cards. In the punch card, the Data was recorded by punching holes in these cards, or strips of non-conducting paper, and then counting these by mechanical counters operated by electromagnets.

## 9.MECHANICAL AND ELECTRICAL CALCULATOR

At the beginning of the 19th century, the mechanical calculator was developed to calculate all the mathematical calculations.

In the 1960s, it was widely used. Later that the rotating part of this mechanical calculator was replaced by an electric motor then it is called the **electrical calculator**.

## 10.MODERN ELECTRIC CALCULATOR

The electrical calculator used in the 1960s was run with electron tubes, Which was quite heavy because they are bulky. Later that it was replaced with transistors and then the result was fairly small that makes a good feel in the hand as compared to the electrical calculator. Modern electronic calculators contain a keyboard with buttons for digits and for arithmetical operations. These calculators can perform **sophisticated arithmetic** and **financial computation** such as converting from polar to rectangular coordinates, taking square roots, and comparing logarithms and trigonometric relationships.

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