What is Integrated Circuit and Its Types

INTRODUCTION

Hey guys, In todays blog we’ll discuss on “what is integrated circuit and its types”

In our previous blog of “Evolution of computer,” we saw that the integrated circuit is used in “the third generation of computer”. So, In today blog we are going to discuss on “integrated circuit” in detail

INTEGRATED CIRCUIT INVENTORS

The integrated circuit(IC) was invented between 1958-1959 by the American electrical engineer “Jack Kilby” and “Robert Noyce”(an American physicist). Noyce developed the integrated circuit but the same concept has been invented by Jack Kilby at Texas Instruments in Dallas. Robert Noyce invented the first monolithic integrated circuit in 1959. On the other hand, Jack Kilby was invented in 1958 and also he was awarded the noble prize in physics on 10 December 2000.

Robert Noyce and Jack Kibly (Who invent the integrated circuit)

INTEGRETED CIRCUIT

An integrated circuit (IC) is the set of electronic circuits on a small flat of pieces of semiconductor that is normally known as “Silicon Chip” and it is also known as microchip or microelectronic circuit.

Integrated Circuits are defined as the circuit that comprises elements that are inseparable and interconnected electrically.  An IC is an assembly of electronic components, such as Registers, Capacitors, Diodes, and Transistors. They are fabricated as a single unit, In which the transistors and diodes are miniaturized active devices and the capacitors and resistors are passive devices. Since the 1960s the speed, size, and cost of the integrated circuit are relatively low to the older generations of circuits.

TYPES OF INTEGRTED CIRCUIT

There are two main types of Integrated circuit are:

  1. Analog IC
  2. Digital IC

1. Analog Integrated Circuit

An analog integrated circuit are those circuit which is dealing with signals free to vary from zero to power supply, It means that the analog circuit are connected to those devices which collect signal from the environment and send it back to the environment. e.g a microphone converts fluctuating vocal sounds into an electrical signal of varying voltage.

In simple words, analog means that signal which are in continuously varying voltage is known as analog IC’s. In this type of IC, the input and the output signal both are continuous in nature.

Examples of analog integrated circuits are operational amplifiers, differential amplifiers, voltage regulators, modulators, power management circuits, etc.

2. Digital Integrated circuit

On the other hand, Digital circuit are those circuit which is embedded with many other logic circuits programmed to perform some logical operations. There are some logic operations are NOT gate, OR gate, and AND gate which combine to carry the specific operation. This IC operates with the binary number 0 & 1. 0 indicates the 0 V and 1 indicates the +5V

In simple words, A digital IC that operates some few levels of operating signal amplitude is known as a digital IC. And, these are designed by using multiple numbers are digital logic gate, NOT gate, OR gate and AND gate, etc. The digital gates are work with binary numbers 0 & 1.

Examples of Digital logic IC are Half adder, full adder, multiplexer, demultiplexer, code converter, etc.

Advantages and Disadvantages of Integrated Circuit are:

ADVANTAGES

  • Integrated circuits are smaller than discrete circuits.
  • It consumes less energy and the weight of an IC is less than the discrete circuit.
  • It is more reliable.
  • IC has the ability to control the extreme level of temperatures.
  • It increases the Operating speed.
  • Suitable for small signal operation.

DISADVANTAGES

  • In IC the power dissipation is limited to 10 watts.
  • IC can be handling the limited amount of power
  • Voltage is depending on capacitors and the transistors.
  • A low-temperature coefficient is difficult to be achieved.
  • Indicators or Coil can not be fabricated.
  • P-N-P assembly is not possible.
  • The operation can be performed in low voltage and the IC function can be Perfomed fairly low voltage

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